月归档:二月 2011

Macronodular cirrhosis 大结节性肝硬化

Here is another example of macronodular cirrhosis. Viral hepatitis (B or C) is the most common cause for macronodular cirrhosis. Wilson’s disease and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency also can produce a macronodular cirrhosis.

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Liver damage with liver necrosis 肝损伤和肝细胞坏死

Ongoing liver damage with liver cell necrosis followed by fibrosis and hepatocyte regeneration results in cirrhosis. This produces a nodular, firm liver. The nodules seen here are larger than 3 mm and, hence, this is an example of “macronodular” cirrhosis.

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Lipid vacuoles within hepatocytes 肝细胞的脂质空泡

Here are seen the lipid vacuoles within hepatocytes. The lipid accumulates when lipoprotein transport is disrupted and/or when fatty acids accumulate. Alcohol, the most common cause, is a hepatotoxin that interferes with mitochondrial and microsomal function in hepatocytes, leading to … 继续阅读

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Hepatic fatty change 肝脂肪变性

This is the histologic appearance of hepatic fatty change. The lipid accumulates in the hepatocytes as vacuoles. These vacuoles have a clear appearance with H&E staining. The most common cause of fatty change in developed nations is alcoholism. In developing … 继续阅读

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Liver is slightly enlarged 肝脏轻微肿大

This liver is slightly enlarged and has a pale yellow appearance, seen both on the capsule and cut surface. This uniform change is consistent with fatty metamorphosis (fatty change).

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Lobular histology 肝小叶组织学

Liver is divided histologically into lobules. The center of the lobule is the central vein. At the periphery of the lobule are portal triads. Functionally, the liver can be divided into three zones, based upon oxygen supply. Zone 1 encircles … 继续阅读

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surface of a normal liver 正常肝表面

The cut surface of a normal liver has a brown color. Near the hilum here, note the portal vein carrying blood to the liver, which branches at center left, with accompanying hepatic artery and bile ducts. At the lower right … 继续阅读

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surface of a normal liver 正常肝表面

This is the external surface of a normal liver. The color is brown and the surface is smooth. A normal liver is about 1200 to 1600 grams.

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The liver is the largest parenchymal organ肝脏是最大的实质器官

This is an in-situ photograph of the chest and abdominal contents. As can be seen, the liver is the largest parenchymal organ, lying just below the diaphragm. The right lobe (at the left in the photograph) is larger than the … 继续阅读

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Immunohistochemical stain for insulin in the islet cell adenoma免疫组织化学染色胰岛素的胰岛细胞瘤

This is an immunohistochemical stain for insulin in the islet cell adenoma. Thus, it is an insulinoma.

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