月归档:三月 2011

Multiple sclerosis 多发性硬化症(MS)

Here is a demyelinated plaque in a patient with multiple sclerosis (MS). The lesions can be seen with MRI scans, but the appearance in the CSF of increased protein from IgG that demonstrates oligoclonal bands on electrophoresis is very consistent … 继续阅读

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Multiple sclerosis 多发性硬化症(MS)

Seen here in white matter is a large “plaque” of demyelination. The plaque has a grey-tan appearance. Such plaques are typical for multiple sclerosis (MS). These plaques lead to the clinical appearance of transient or progressive loss of neurological function. … 继续阅读

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Wernicke’s disease 魏尼凯氏疾病

The small petechial hemorrhages in the mammillary bodies seen here are characteristic for Wernicke’s disease, another complication of chronic alcoholism with thiamine deficiency.

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Anterior vermian atrophy of the cerebellum小脑前吲部萎缩症

Here is anterior vermian atrophy of the cerebellum in a patient with chronic alcoholism.

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Tuberous sclerosis 结节性硬化症

This area of firm, whitened gyri that are broader than surrounding normal gyri is typical for tuberous sclerosis.

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Tuber with tuberous sclerosis 结节性硬化症结节

Here is another tuber with tuberous sclerosis. The distinction between grey and white matter is lost. These patients can also have cardiac rhabdomyomas, renal angiomyolipomas, adenoma sebaceum of the skin, and pancreatic cysts.

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Tuberous sclerosis 结节性硬化症

This is tuberous sclerosis, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by mental retardation and seizures beginning early in life. The characteristic feature is the presence of “tubers” which are enlarged and firm, whitened gyri. A “tuber” is seen at the white … 继续阅读

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Hydranencephaly 积水性无脑

The skull is opened in this third trimester stillborn fetus to reveal hydranencephaly. In this condition, there is an intrauterine event, such as an arterial occlusion, which leads to extensive cerebral infarction, typically involving the hemispheres. All that is left … 继续阅读

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Meningomyelocele 脊膜脊髓膨出

This large mid-thoracic meningomyelocele is another form of neural tube defect (NTD). The genetic polymorphisms due to mutations in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene may increase the risk for NTDs. Folate is a cofactor for this enzyme, which is part … 继续阅读

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Anencepyhaly 无脑儿

The absence of the fetal cranial vault in anencephaly is shown here. The incidence of anencephaly, one form of neural tube defect, has been reported to occur as frequently as 1 to 5 in 1000 live births in the past. … 继续阅读

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