月归档:三月 2011

Anencephaly 无脑儿

Anencephaly is absence of the fetal cranial vault. Exposure of cerebral tissue to amniotic fluid precludes brain development. Anencephaly is a form of neural tube defect that is typically an isolated birth defect that is not related to chromosomal abnormalities.

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Holoprosencephaly 前脑无裂畸形

The skull is opened here to reveal the “semilobar” form of holoprosencephaly, because there is a small cleft representing an attempt to separate the hemispheres. There is no gyral pattern seen here (lissencephaly) because this stillborn fetus was under 20 … 继续阅读

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Holoprosencephaly 前脑无裂畸形

There is a range of findings, including facial abnormalities, that can occur with holoprosencephaly, many of which can be seen in a fetus by ultrasound, so prenatal diagnosis is possible. The large single ventricle seen here inside a single hemisphere … 继续阅读

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Holoprosencephaly 前脑无裂畸形

This is holoprosencephaly in which there is a single large ventricle with fusion of midline structures, including thalami. The affected fetuses and neonates typically have severe facial defects, such as cyclopia, as well. Underlying chromosomal abnormalities, such as trisomy 13, … 继续阅读

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Irregular vascular proliferation 不规则血管增生

Microscopically, the “area cerebrovasculosa” from the base of the skull from an anencephalic consists of scattered primitive neuroglial tissue elements within an irregular vascular proliferation.

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Hydrocephalus 脑积水

Note the marked dilation of the cerebral ventricles. This is hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus can be due to lack of absorption of CSF or due to an obstruction to flow of CSF.

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Cerebral abscess 脑脓肿

This trichrome stain demonstrates the light blue connective tissue in the wall of an organizing cerebral abscess. Normal brain is at the right and the center of the abscess at the left.

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Cerebral abscess 脑脓肿

This is a cerebral abscess. There is a liquefactive center with yellow pus surrounded by a thin wall. Abscesses usually result from hematogenous spread of bacterial infection, but may also occur from direct penetrating trauma or extension from adjacent infection … 继续阅读

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Herpes simplex virus infection 单纯疱疹病毒的感染

The hemorrhages seen here in the temporal lobe are due to Herpes simplex virus infection. Viral infections produce mononuclear cell infiltrates microscopically.

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Fungal infections 真菌感染

Disseminated infections can be seen in immunocompromised hosts. Such infections can include fungi. Seen here are branching hyphae of Aspergillus invading a cerebral vessel. Aspergillus likes to invade vessels and produce hemorrhage and thrombosis.

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